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Cardiometabolic disease and features of depression and bipolar disorder: population-based, cross-sectional study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • Daniel J Martin
  • Zia Ul-Haq
  • Barbara I Nicholl
  • Breda Cullen
  • Jonathan Evans
  • Jason M R Gill
  • Beverly Roberts
  • John Gallacher
  • Daniel Mackay
  • Andrew McIntosh
  • Matthew Hotopf
  • Nick Craddock
  • Ian J Deary
  • Jill P Pell
  • Daniel J Smith

Related Edinburgh Organisations

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)343-351
JournalThe British Journal of Psychiatry
Issue number4
Early online date1 Apr 2016
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 1 Apr 2016


BackgroundThe relative contribution of demographic, lifestyle and medication factors to the association between affective disorders and cardiometabolic diseases is poorly understood.AimsTo assess the relationship between cardiometabolic disease and features of depresion and bipolar disorder within a large population sample.MethodCross-sectional study of 145 991 UK Biobank participants: multivariate analyses of associations between features of depression or bipolar disorder and five cardiometabolic outcomes, adjusting for confounding factors.ResultsThere were significant associations between mood disorder features and 'any cardiovascular disease' (depression odds ratio (OR) = 1.15, 95% CI 1.12-1.19; bipolar OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.14-1.43) and with hypertension (depression OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.13-1.18; bipolar OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.12-1.42). Individuals with features of mood disorder taking psychotropic medication were significantly more likely than controls not on psychotropics to report myocardial infarction (depression OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.24-1.73; bipolar OR = 2.23, 95% CI 1.53-3.57) and stroke (depression OR = 2.46, 95% CI 2.10-2.80; bipolar OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.39-3.85).ConclusionsAssociations between features of depression or bipolar disorder and cardiovascular disease outcomes were statistically independent of demographic, lifestyle and medication confounders. Psychotropic medication may also be a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease in individuals without a clear history of mood disorder.

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