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Effects of Acute Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia on Indices of Inflammation Putative mechanism for aggravating vascular disease in diabetes

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  • Rohana J. Wright
  • David E. Newby
  • David Stirling
  • Christopher A. Ludlam
  • Ian A. Macdonald
  • Brian M. Frier

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http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/33/7/1591
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1591-1597
Number of pages7
JournalDiabetes Care
Volume33
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2010

Abstract

OBJECTIVE - To examine the effects of acute insulin-induced hypoglycemia on inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and platelet activation in adults with and without type 1 diabetes.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We studied 16 nondiabetic adults and 16 subjects with type 1 diabetes during euglycemia (blood glucose 4.5 mmol/l) and hypoglycemia (blood glucose 2.5 mmol/l). Markers of inflammation, thrombosis, and endothelial dysfunction (soluble P-selectin, interleukin-6, von Willebrand factor [vWF], tissue plasminogen activator [tPA], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], and soluble CD40 ligand [sCD40L]) were measured; platelet-monocyte aggregation and CD40 expression on monocytes were determined using flow cytometry.

RESULTS - In nondiabetic participants, platelet activation occurred after hypoglycemia, with increments in platelet-monocyte aggregation and P-selectin (P <= 0.02). Inflammation was triggered with CD40 expression increasing maximally at 24 h (3.13 +/- 2.3% vs. 2.06 +/- 1.0%) after hypoglycemia (P = 0.009). Both sCD40L and hsCRP (P = 0.02) increased with a nonsignificant rise in vWF and tPA, indicating a possible endothelial effect. A reduction in sCD40L, tPA, and P-selectin occurred during euglycemia (P = 0.03, P <= 0.006, and P = 0.006, respectively). In type 1 diabetes, both CD40 expression (5.54 +/- 4.4% vs. 3.65 +/- 1.8%; P = 0.006) and plasma sCD40L concentrations increased during hypoglycemia (peak 3.41 +/- 3.2 vs. 2.85 +/- 2.8 ng/ml; P = 0.03). Platelet-monocyte aggregation also increased significantly at 24 h after hypoglycemia (P = 0.03). A decline in vWF and P-selectin occurred during euglycemia (P <= 0.04).

CONCLUSIONS - Acute hypoglycemia may provoke upregulation and release of vasoactive substances in adults with and without type 1 diabetes. This may be a putative mechanism for hypoglycemia-induced vascular injury.

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