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Effects of Proportions of Dietary Macronutrients on Glucocorticoid Metabolism in Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats

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    Rights statement: Copyright: © 2010 Stimson et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0008779
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere8779
Pages (from-to)-
Number of pages7
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume5
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jan 2010

Abstract

Tissue glucocorticoid levels in the liver and adipose tissue are regulated by regeneration of inactive glucocorticoid by 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 beta-HSD1) and inactivation by 5 alpha- and 5 beta-reductases. A low carbohydrate diet increases hepatic 11 beta-HSD1 and reduces glucocorticoid metabolism during weight loss in obese humans. We hypothesized that similar variations in macronutrient proportions regulate glucocorticoid metabolism in obese rats. Male Lister Hooded rats were fed an obesity-inducing ad libitum 'Western' diet (37% fat, n = 36) for 22 weeks, then randomised to continue this diet (n = 12) or to switch to either a low carbohydrate (n = 12) or a moderate carbohydrate (n = 12) diet for the final 8 weeks. A parallel lean control group were fed an ad libitum control diet (10% fat, n = 12) throughout. The low and moderate carbohydrate diets decreased hepatic 11 beta-HSD1 mRNA compared with the Western diet (both 0.7+/-0.0 vs 0.9+/-0.1 AU; p<0.01), but did not alter 11 beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue. 5 alpha-Reductase mRNA was increased on the low carbohydrate compared with the moderate carbohydrate diet. Compared with lean controls, the Western diet decreased 11 beta-HSD1 activity (1.6+/-0.1 vs 2.8+/-0.1 nmol/mcg protein/hr; p<0.001) and increased 5 alpha-reductase and 5 beta-reductase mRNAs (1.9+/-0.3 vs 1.0+/-0.2 and 1.6+/-0.1 vs 1.0+/-0.1 AU respectively; p<0.01) in the liver, and reduced 11 beta-HSD1 mRNA and activity (both p<0.01) in adipose tissue. Although an obesity-inducing high fat diet in rats recapitulates the abnormal glucocorticoid metabolism associated with human obesity in liver (but not in adipose tissue), a low carbohydrate diet does not increase hepatic 11 beta-HSD1 in obese rats as occurs in humans.

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