Edinburgh Research Explorer

Endogenous opioid release in the human brain reward system induced by acute amphetamine administration

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • Alessandro Colasanti
  • Graham E Searle
  • Christopher J Long
  • Samuel P Hill
  • Richard R Reiley
  • Darren Quelch
  • David Erritzoe
  • Andri C Tziortzi
  • Laurence J Reed
  • Anne R Lingford-Hughes
  • Adam D Waldman
  • Koen R J Schruers
  • Paul M Matthews
  • Roger N Gunn
  • David J Nutt
  • Eugenii A Rabiner

Related Edinburgh Organisations

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)371-7
Number of pages7
JournalBiological Psychiatry
Issue number5
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 3 Mar 2012


BACKGROUND: We aimed to demonstrate a pharmacologically stimulated endogenous opioid release in the living human brain by evaluating the effects of amphetamine administration on [(11)C]carfentanil binding with positron emission tomography (PET).

METHODS: Twelve healthy male volunteers underwent [(11)C]carfentanil PET before and 3 hours after a single oral dose of d-amphetamine (either a "high" dose, .5 mg/kg, or a sub-pharmacological "ultra-low" dose, 1.25 mg total dose or approximately .017 mg/kg). Reductions in [(11)C]carfentanil binding from baseline to post-amphetamine scans (ΔBP(ND)) after the "high" and "ultra-low" amphetamine doses were assessed in 10 regions of interest.

RESULTS: [(11)C]carfentanil binding was reduced after the "high" but not the "ultra-low" amphetamine dose in the frontal cortex, putamen, caudate, thalamus, anterior cingulate, and insula.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that oral amphetamine administration induces endogenous opioid release in different areas of human brain, including basal ganglia, frontal cortex areas, and thalamus. The combination of an amphetamine challenge and [(11)C]carfentanil PET is a practical and robust method to probe the opioid system in the living human brain.

    Research areas

  • Adult, Amphetamine, Brain, Brain Mapping, Carbon Radioisotopes, Fentanyl, Humans, Male, Opioid Peptides, Positron-Emission Tomography, Reward, Statistics, Nonparametric, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

ID: 46127143