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Ethical responsibilities towards expedition pack animals: The mountain guide's and expedition leader's ethical responsibilities towards pack animals on expedition

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1839-1858
Number of pages20
JournalAnnals of Tourism Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2012


Mountain Guides and Expedition Leaders often find themselves using pack animals, such as mules, on expedition. In the absence of motorised transport, the mule's ability to carry heavy loads over difficult mountainous terrain is thus exploited. Superficially, this can be reduced to a contractual arrangement between the mule owner and guide: the muleteer is able to secure employment because, together with his mule, he is able to offer a service in exchange for money. In employing the muleteer, the leader enters into a contract with another moral being that brings with it various rights and responsibilities. The nature of the contract between the leader and the mule, however, is far from clear and the leader's responsibilities easily overlooked.

    Research areas

  • pack animals , animal welfare, ethical responsibilities, expeditions, mountain guides, mountain leaders

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