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Evaporation of sessile drops: a three-dimensional approach

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)705-739
Number of pages35
JournalJournal of Fluid Mechanics
Volume772
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2015

Abstract

The evaporation of non-axisymmetric sessile drops is studied by means of experiments and three-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS). The emergence of azimuthal currents and pairs of counter-rotating vortices in the liquid bulk flow is reported in drops with non-circular contact area. These phenomena, especially the latter, which is also observed experimentally, are found to play a critical role in the transient flow dynamics and associated heat transfer. Non-circular drops exhibit variable wettability along the pinned contact line sensitive to the choice of system parameters, and inversely dependent on the local contact-line curvature, providing a simple criterion for estimating the approximate contact-angle distribution. The evaporation rate is found to vary in the same order of magnitude as the liquid-gas interfacial area. Furthermore, the more complex case of drops evaporating with a moving contact line (MCL) in the constant contact-angle mode is addressed. Interestingly, the numerical results demonstrate that the average interface temperature remains essentially constant as the drop evaporates in the constant-angle (CA) mode, while this increases in the constant-radius (CR) mode as the drops become thinner. It is therefore concluded that, for increasing substrate heating, the evaporation rate increases more rapidly in the CR mode than in the CA mode. In other words, the higher the temperature the larger the difference between the lifetimes of an evaporating drop in the CA mode with respect to that evaporating in the CR mode.

    Research areas

  • condensation/evaporation, drops and bubbles, multiphase flow, MOVING CONTACT LINES, VOLATILE LIQUID DROPLETS, DIFFUSE-INTERFACE, WATER DROPLETS, SOLID-SURFACES, STICK-SLIP, NONUNIFORM SYSTEM, HEATED SURFACES, FREE ENERGY, SHEAR-FLOW

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