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Evolutionary Conservation of the PA-X Open Reading Frame in Segment 3 of Influenza A Virus

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    Rights statement: Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12411-12413
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of Virology
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2012


PA-X is a fusion protein of influenza A virus encoded in part from a +1 frameshifted X open reading frame (X-ORF) in segment 3. We show that the X-ORFs of diverse influenza A viruses can be divided into two groups that differ in selection pressure and likely function, reflected in the presence of an internal stop codon and a change in synonymous diversity. Notably, truncated forms of PA-X evolved convergently in swine and dogs, suggesting a strong species-specific effect.

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