Edinburgh Research Explorer

Exposure of phototrophs to 548 days in low Earth orbit: microbial selection pressures in outer space and on early earth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Related Edinburgh Organisations

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1671-1682
Number of pages12
JournalThe ISME Journal
Volume5
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2011

Abstract

An epilithic microbial community was launched into low Earth orbit, and exposed to conditions in outer space for 548 days on the European Space Agency EXPOSE-E facility outside the International Space Station. The natural phototroph biofilm was augmented with akinetes of Anabaena cylindrica and vegetative cells of Nostoc commune and Chroococcidiopsis. In space-exposed dark controls, two algae (Chlorella and Rosenvingiella spp.), a cyanobacterium (Gloeocapsa sp.) and two bacteria associated with the natural community survived. Of the augmented organisms, cells of A. cylindrica and Chroococcidiopsis survived, but no cells of N. commune. Only cells of Chroococcidiopsis were cultured from samples exposed to the unattenuated extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) spectrum (>110 nm or 200 nm). Raman spectroscopy and bright-field microscopy showed that under these conditions the surface cells were bleached and their carotenoids were destroyed, although cell morphology was preserved. These experiments demonstrate that outer space can act as a selection pressure on the composition of microbial communities. The results obtained from samples exposed to >200 nm UV (simulating the putative worst-case UV exposure on the early Earth) demonstrate the potential for epilithic colonization of land masses during that time, but that UV radiation on anoxic planets can act as a strong selection pressure on surface-dwelling organisms. Finally, these experiments have yielded new phototrophic organisms of potential use in biomass and oxygen production in space exploration. The ISME Journal (2011) 5, 1671-1682; doi:10.1038/ismej.2011.46; published online 19 May 2011

    Research areas

  • algae, bacteria, cyanobacteria, epilith, low Earth orbit, space exploration, BACILLUS-SUBTILIS SPORES, UV-RADIATION CLIMATE, COLI PLASMID PUC19, ULTRAVIOLET-RADIATION, CYANOBACTERIUM CHROOCOCCIDIOPSIS, VACUUM UV, DESICCATION, COMMUNITY, DESERT, ALGAE

ID: 1494792