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Genetic heterogeneity in Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) and CdLS-like phenotypes with observed and predicted levels of mosaicism

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  • Gemma Poke
  • Quentin Ferry
  • Cheng Yee Chan
  • Hülya Kayserili
  • Sahin Avci
  • Raoul C M Hennekam
  • Anne K Lampe
  • Egbert Redeker
  • Tessa Homfray
  • Alison Ross
  • Marie Falkenberg Smeland
  • Sahar Mansour
  • Michael J Parker
  • Jacqueline A Cook
  • Miranda Splitt
  • Richard B Fisher
  • Alan Fryer
  • Alex C Magee
  • Andrew Wilkie
  • Angela Barnicoat
  • Angela F Brady
  • Nicola S Cooper
  • Catherine Mercer
  • Charu Deshpande
  • Christopher P Bennett
  • Daniela T Pilz
  • Deborah Ruddy
  • Deirdre Cilliers
  • Diana S Johnson
  • Dragana Josifova
  • Elisabeth Rosser
  • Elizabeth M Thompson
  • Emma Wakeling
  • Esther Kinning
  • Fiona Stewart
  • Frances Flinter
  • Katta M Girisha
  • Helen Cox
  • Helen V Firth
  • Helen Kingston
  • Jamie S Wee
  • Jane A Hurst
  • Jill Clayton-Smith
  • John Tolmie
  • Julie Vogt
  • Katrina Tatton-Brown
  • Kate Chandler
  • Katrina Prescott
  • Louise Wilson
  • Mahdiyeh Behnam
  • Meriel McEntagart
  • Rosemarie Davidson
  • Sally-Ann Lynch
  • Sanjay Sisodiya
  • Sarju G Mehta
  • Shane A McKee
  • Shehla Mohammed
  • Simon Holden
  • Soo-Mi Park
  • Susan E Holder
  • Victoria Harrison
  • Vivienne McConnell
  • Wayne K Lam
  • Andrew J Green
  • Dian Donnai
  • Maria Bitner-Glindzicz
  • Deirdre E Donnelly
  • Christoffer Nellåker

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    Rights statement: This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon this work, for commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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http://jmg.bmj.com/content/51/10/659
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)659-668
JournalJournal of Medical Genetics
Volume51
Issue number10
Early online date14 Aug 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Sep 2014

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem disorder with distinctive facial appearance, intellectual disability and growth failure as prominent features. Most individuals with typical CdLS have de novo heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in NIPBL with mosaic individuals representing a significant proportion. Mutations in other cohesin components, SMC1A, SMC3, HDAC8 and RAD21 cause less typical CdLS.

METHODS: We screened 163 affected individuals for coding region mutations in the known genes, 90 for genomic rearrangements, 19 for deep intronic variants in NIPBL and 5 had whole-exome sequencing.

RESULTS: Pathogenic mutations [including mosaic changes] were identified in: NIPBL 46 [3] (28.2%); SMC1A 5 [1] (3.1%); SMC3 5 [1] (3.1%); HDAC8 6 [0] (3.6%) and RAD21 1 [0] (0.6%). One individual had a de novo 1.3 Mb deletion of 1p36.3. Another had a 520 kb duplication of 12q13.13 encompassing ESPL1, encoding separase, an enzyme that cleaves the cohesin ring. Three de novo mutations were identified in ANKRD11 demonstrating a phenotypic overlap with KBG syndrome. To estimate the number of undetected mosaic cases we used recursive partitioning to identify discriminating features in the NIPBL-positive subgroup. Filtering of the mutation-negative group on these features classified at least 18% as 'NIPBL-like'. A computer composition of the average face of this NIPBL-like subgroup was also more typical in appearance than that of all others in the mutation-negative group supporting the existence of undetected mosaic cases.

CONCLUSIONS: Future diagnostic testing in 'mutation-negative' CdLS thus merits deeper sequencing of multiple DNA samples derived from different tissues.

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