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"God is witness" a classical rhetorical idiom in its pauline usage

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    Rights statement: © Novenson, M. V. (2010). "God is witness" a classical rhetorical idiom in its pauline usage. Novum Testamentum, 52(4), 355-375doi: 10.1163/004810010X12591327956385

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)355-375
Number of pages21
JournalNovum Testamentum
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2010


Five times in the undisputed letters Paul invokes God as guarantor of the truth of a claim with a form of the phrase "God is witness." Interpreters have long identified these sayings as self-imprecatory oaths after a pattern attested in the Hebrew Bible. In this article, I argue that the Pauline phrase "God is witness" is not a self-imprecatory oath at all, but rather a figure of speech with roots in the rhetoric of classical Greece and a long tradition in postclassical pagan, Jewish, and Christian literature. In this figure of speech, God is not testifying against Paul in case Paul should default on a promise; rather God is testifying for Paul that Paul's character can be trusted. © 2010 Brill.

    Research areas

  • divine testimony, God, idiom, oath, Paul, rhetoric, witness

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