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How does blood regulate cerebral temperatures during hypothermia?

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Macro-modeling of cerebral blood flow can help determine the impact of thermal intervention during instances of head trauma to mitigate tissue damage. This work presents a bioheat model using a 3D fluid-porous domain coupled with intersecting 1D arterial and venous vessel trees. This combined vascular porous (VaPor) model resolves both cerebral blood flow and energy equations, including heat generated by metabolism, using vasculature extracted from MRI data and is extended using a tree generation algorithm. Counter-current flows are expected to increase thermal transfer within the brain and are enforced using either the vascular structure or flow reversal, represented by a flow reversal constant, C R . These methods exhibit larger average brain cooling (from 0.56 °C ± <0.01 °C to 0.58 °C ± <0.01 °C) compared with previous models (0.39 °C) when scalp temperature is reduced. An greater reduction in core brain temperature is observed (from 0.29 °C ± <0.01 °C to 0.45 °C ± <0.01 °C) compared to previous models (0.11 °C) due to the inclusion of counter-current cooling effects. The VaPor model also predicts that a hypothermic average temperature (<36 °C) can be reached in core regions of neonatal models using scalp cooling alone.

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