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Identification and annotation of conserved promoters and macrophage-expressed genes in the pig genome

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    Rights statement: © 2015 Robert et al. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)970
JournalBMC Genomics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 20 Nov 2015


BACKGROUND: The FANTOM5 consortium used Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) tag sequencing to produce a comprehensive atlas of promoters and enhancers within the human and mouse genomes. We reasoned that the mapping of these regulatory elements to the pig genome could provide useful annotation and evidence to support assignment of orthology.

RESULTS: For human transcription start sites (TSS) associated with annotated human-mouse orthologs, 17% mapped to the pig genome but not to the mouse, 10% mapped only to the mouse, and 55% mapped to both pig and mouse. Around 17% did not map to either species. The mapping percentages were lower where there was not clear orthology relationship, but in every case, mapping to pig was greater than to mouse, and the degree of homology was also greater. Combined mapping of mouse and human CAGE-defined promoters identified at least one putative conserved TSS for >16,000 protein-coding genes. About 54% of the predicted locations of regulatory elements in the pig genome were supported by CAGE and/or RNA-Seq analysis from pig macrophages.

CONCLUSIONS: Comparative mapping of promoters and enhancers from humans and mice can provide useful preliminary annotation of other animal genomes. The data also confirm extensive gain and loss of regulatory elements between species, and the likelihood that pigs provide a better model than mice for human gene regulation and function.

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