Edinburgh Research Explorer

Investigation into Global Equivalence Ratio and External Plumes from Timber Lined Compartments

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

  • Georgios Kanellopoulos
  • Alastair Bartlett
  • Angus Law

Related Edinburgh Organisations

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Event9th International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards -
Duration: 21 Apr 201926 Apr 2019


Conference9th International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards


The construction industry promotes the use of cross-laminated timber (CLT) as a more sustainable and architectural material. This introduces unknown fire hazards in the built environment. The current study investigates the differences in the external plume between compartments with CLT surfaces and non- combustible surfaces. An exposed timber structure increases the fuel load, which in turn increases the produced flammable gases. As oxygen supply is limited by the opening, part of the flaming combustion will take place outside. This results in an external plume that could affect the adjacent building and the building of origin. The global equivalence ratio (GER) indicates how much unburnt fuel exits from the compartment opening. The GER is calculated from the air inflow rate, the stoichiometric fuel-air ratio, and the burning rate. Medium scale experiments, with a 0.7 m cubic compartment, have been implemented to investigate the effect of exposed timber on the external plume. It was found that GER was higher when timber lining were exposed, and that this resulted in higher heat fluxes on the façade above the compartment opening.


9th International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards


Event: Conference

ID: 86354502