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Low health literacy predicts decline in physical function among older adults: findings from the LitCog cohort study

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  • Samuel G Smith
  • Rachel O'Conor
  • Laura M Curtis
  • Katie Waite
  • Ian J Deary
  • Michael Paasche-Orlow
  • Michael S Wolf

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    Rights statement: @ Smith, S. G., O'Conor, R., Curtis, L. M., Waite, K., Deary, I. J., Paasche-Orlow, M., & Wolf, M. S. (2015). Low health literacy predicts decline in physical function among older adults: findings from the LitCog cohort study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 10.1136/jech-2014-204915

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    Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution (CC-BY)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)474-480
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Epidemiology & Community Health
Volume69
Issue number5
Early online date8 Jan 2015
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2015

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Limited health literacy is associated with worse physical function in cross-sectional studies. We aimed to determine if health literacy is a risk factor for decline in physical function among older adults.

METHODS: A longitudinal cohort of 529 community-dwelling American adults aged 55-74 years were recruited from an academic general internal medicine clinic and federally qualified health centres in 2008-2011. Health literacy (Newest Vital Sign), age, gender, race, education, chronic conditions, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking status and exercise frequency were included in multivariable analyses. The 10-item PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System) physical function scale was assessed at baseline and follow-up (mean=3.2 years, SD=0.39).

RESULTS: Nearly half of the sample (48.2%) had either marginal (25.5%) or low health literacy (22.7%). Average physical function at baseline was 83.2 (SD=16.6) of 100, and health literacy was associated with poorer baseline physical function in multivariable analysis (p=0.004). At follow-up, physical function declined to 81.9 (SD=17.3; p=0.006) and 20.5% experienced a meaningful decline (>0.5 SD of baseline score). In multivariable analyses, participants with marginal (OR 2.62; 95%CI 1.38 to 4.95; p=0.003) and low (OR 2.57; 95%CI 1.22 to 5.44; p=0.013) health literacy were more likely to experience meaningful decline in physical function than the adequate health literacy group. Entering cognitive abilities to these models did not substantially attenuate effect sizes. Health literacy attenuated the relationship between black race and decline in physical function by 32.6%.

CONCLUSIONS: Lower health literacy increases the risk of exhibiting faster physical decline over time among older adults. Strategies that reduce literacy disparities should be designed and evaluated.

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