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Multiple circadian clock outputs regulate diel turnover of carbon and nitrogen reserves

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  • Anna Flis
  • Virginie Mengin
  • Alexander A Ivakov
  • Sam T Mugford
  • Hans-Michael Hubberten
  • Beatrice Encke
  • Nicole Krohn
  • Melanie Höhne
  • Regina Feil
  • Rainer Hoefgen
  • John E Lunn
  • Andrew J Millar
  • Alison M Smith
  • Ronan Sulpice
  • Mark Stitt

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    Rights statement: This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi: 10.1111/pce.13440

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)549-573
Number of pages25
JournalPlant, Cell and Environment
Issue number2
Early online date5 Sep 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019


Plants accumulate reserves in the daytime to support growth at night. Circadian regulation of diel reserve turnover was investigated by profiling starch, sugars, glucose 6-phosphate, organic acids and amino acids during a light-dark cycle and after transfer to continuous light in Arabidopsis wild-types and in mutants lacking dawn (lhy cca1), morning (prr7 prr9), dusk (toc1, gi) or evening (elf3) clock components. The metabolite time-series were integrated with published time-series for circadian clock transcripts to identify circadian outputs that regulate central metabolism. i) Starch accumulation was slower in elf3 and prr7 prr9. It is proposed that ELF3 positively regulates starch accumulation. ii) Reducing sugars were high early in the T-cycle in elf3, revealing that ELF3 negatively regulates sucrose recycling. iii) The pattern of starch mobilization was modified in all five mutants. A model is proposed in which dawn and dusk/evening components interact to pace degradation to anticipated dawn. iv) An endogenous oscillation of glucose 6-phosphate revealed that the clock buffers metabolism against the large influx of carbon from photosynthesis. v) Low levels of organic and amino acids in lhy cca1 and high levels in prr7 prr9 provide evidence that the dawn components positively regulate the accumulation of amino acid reserves.

    Research areas

  • Arabidopsis, circadian clock, nitrogen metabolism, sugar, starch

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