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p21 (WAF1) is component of a positive feedback loop that maintains the p53 transcriptional program

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    Rights statement: 2011 Landes Bioscience

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Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)932-950
Number of pages19
JournalCell Cycle
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2011


The regulation of p53 activity through the MDM2 negative feedback loop is driven in part by an extrinsic ATM-pulse that maintains p53 oscillations in response to DNA damage. We report here that the p53 pathway has evolved an intrinsic positive feedback loop that is maintained by the p53-inducible gene product p21WAF1. p21-null cancer cells have defects in p53 protein turnover, reductions in MDM2-mediated degradation of p53, and reduced DNA damage-induced ubiquitination of p53. TLR3-IRF1 or ATM-dependent signaling to p53 is defective in p21-null cells and complementation of the p21 gene in p21-null cancer cells restores the p53 transcriptional response. The mechanism of p53 inactivity in p21-null cells is linked to a p53 protein equilibrium shift from chromatin into cytosolic fractions and complementation of the p21 gene into p21-null cells restores the nuclear localization of p53. A loss of p53 transcriptional function in murine B-cells heterozygous or homozygous null for p21 highlights a p21-gene dosage effect that maintains the full p53 transcriptional response. ATM inhibition results in nuclear exclusion of p53 highlighting a positive genetic interaction between ATM and p21. P21 protein oscillates in undamaged proliferating cells, and reductions of p21 protein using siRNA eliminate the DNA damage-induced p53 pulse. The p53 transcription program has evolved a negative feedback loop maintained by MDM2 that is counteracted by a positive feedback loop maintained by ATM-p21 the balance of which controls the specific activity of p53 as a transcription factor.

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