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PCV2d-2 is the predominant type of PCV2 DNA in pig samples collected in the U.S. during 2014–2016

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)72-77
JournalVeterinary Microbiology
Early online date11 Nov 2016
Publication statusPublished - 25 Dec 2016


Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination was introduced in the US in 2006 and since has been adopted by most pig producers. While porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) outbreaks are now relatively uncommon in the US, PCV2 remains a concern which is emphasized by increasing numbers of PCR and sequencing requests for PCV2. In the present study, randomly selected lung tissues from 586 pigs submitted in 2015 were tested for presence of PCV2 DNA. Positive samples were further characterized by sequencing and combined with available PCV2 open-reading-frame (ORF) 2 sequences from the client data base of the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. The prevalence of PCV2 in the randomly selected lung tissues was 23% (135/586) with 11.3% PCV2a, 29% PCV2b and 71.8% for PCV2d subgroup PCV2d-2. A total of 455 ORF2 sequences obtained from 2014 through 2016 were analyzed and PCV2d accounted for 66.7% of the 2014 sequences, 71.8% of the 2015 sequences, and 72% of the 2016 sequences. Interestingly, only 1.9% (9/455) of the sequences belonged to the recently identified PCV2e genotype. The present data indicates that despite an almost 100% PCV2 vaccine coverage in the US, PCV2 DNA can still be detected in almost 1 of 4 randomly selected pig tissues. PCV2d-2 is now the predominant genotype in the USA suggesting that PCV2d-2 may have some advantage over PCV2a and PCV2b in its ability to replicate in pigs under vaccination pressure.

    Research areas

  • Porcine circovirus type 2, PCV2, Genomic analysis, Sequencing, Prevalence, USA

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