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Probing the structural evolution of ruthenium doped germanium clusters: Photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations

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  • Yuanyuan Jin
  • Shengjie Lu
  • Andreas Hermann
  • Xiaoyu Kuang
  • Chuanzhao Zhang
  • Cheng Lu
  • Hongguang Xu
  • Weijun Zheng

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Original languageEnglish
Article number30116
JournalScientific Reports
Issue numberJuly
StatePublished - 21 Jul 2016


We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of ruthenium doped germanium clusters, RuGen (n = 3–12), and their corresponding neutral species. Photoelectron spectra of RuGenclusters are measured at 266 nm. The vertical detachment energies (VDEs) and adiabatic detachment energies (ADEs) are obtained. Unbiased CALYPSO structure searches confirm the low-lying structures of anionic and neutral ruthenium doped germanium clusters in the size range of 3 ≤ n ≤ 12. Subsequent geometry optimizations using density functional theory (DFT) at PW91/LANL2DZ level are carried out to determine the relative stability and electronic properties of ruthenium doped germanium clusters. It is found that most of the anionic and neutral clusters have very similar global features. Although the global minimum structures of the anionic and neutral clusters are different, their respective geometries are observed as the low-lying isomers in either case. In addition, for n > 8, the Ru atom in RuGen−/0 clusters is absorbed endohedrally in the Ge cage. The theoretically predicted vertical and adiabatic detachment energies are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The excellent agreement between DFT calculations and experiment enables a comprehensive evaluation of the geometrical and electronic structures of ruthenium doped germanium clusters.

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