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Systemic inflammatory stimulus potentiates the acute phase and CXC chemokine responses to experimental stroke and exacerbates brain damage via interleukin-1- and neutrophil-dependent mechanisms

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4403-4412
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Neuroscience
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 18 Apr 2007


Systemic inflammatory stimuli, such as infection, increase the risk of stroke and are associated with poorer clinical outcome. The mechanisms underlying the impact of systemic inflammatory stimuli on stroke are not well defined. We investigated the impact of systemic inflammation on experimental stroke and potential mechanisms involved. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by intraluminal filament occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAo). Brain damage and neurological deficit 24 h after MCAo were exacerbated by systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. This exacerbation was critically dependent on interleukin (IL)-1, because coadministration of IL-1 receptor antagonist abolished the effect of LPS on brain damage. Systemic administration of IL-1 increased ischemic damage to a similar extent as LPS and also exacerbated brain edema. IL-1 markedly potentiated circulating levels of the acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and IL-6, and the neutrophil-selective CXC chemokines, KC and macrophage inflammatory protein-2. Neutrophil mobilization and cortical neutrophil infiltration were aggravated by IL-1 before changes in ischemic damage. Neutropenia abolished the damaging effects of systemic IL-1. These data show for the first time that an acute systemic inflammatory stimulus is detrimental to outcome after experimental stroke and highlight IL-1 as a critical mediator in this paradigm. Our data suggest IL-1-induced potentiation of neutrophil mobilization via CXC chemokine induction is a putative mechanism underlying this effect. Our results may help to explain the poorer outcome in stroke patients presenting with infection and may have implications for neurodegenerative diseases involving neurovascular alterations, such as Alzheimer's disease, in which systemic inflammation can modulate disease progression.

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