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Three’s Company: An Additional Non-transiting Super-Earth in the Bright HD 3167 System, and Masses for All Three Planets

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • Jessie L. Christiansen
  • Andrew Vanderburg
  • Jennifer Burt
  • B. J. Fulton
  • Konstantin Batygin
  • Björn Benneke
  • John M. Brewer
  • David Charbonneau
  • David R. Ciardi
  • Andrew Collier Cameron
  • Jeffrey L. Coughlin
  • Ian J. M. Crossfield
  • Courtney Dressing
  • Thomas P. Greene
  • Andrew W. Howard
  • David W. Latham
  • Emilio Molinari
  • Annelies Mortier
  • Fergal Mullally
  • Francesco Pepe
  • Evan Sinukoff
  • Alessandro Sozzetti
  • Susan E. Thompson
  • Stéphane Udry
  • Steven S. Vogt
  • Travis S. Barman
  • Natasha E. Batalha
  • François Bouchy
  • Lars A. Buchhave
  • R. Paul Butler
  • Rosario Cosentino
  • Trent J. Dupuy
  • David Ehrenreich
  • Aldo Fiorenzano
  • Brad M. S. Hansen
  • Thomas Henning
  • Lea Hirsch
  • Bradford P. Holden
  • Howard T. Isaacson
  • John A. Johnson
  • Heather A. Knutson
  • Molly Kosiarek
  • Mercedes López-Morales
  • Christophe Lovis
  • Luca Malavolta
  • Michel Mayor
  • Giuseppina Micela
  • Fatemeh Motalebi
  • Erik Petigura
  • David F. Phillips
  • Giampaolo Piotto
  • Leslie A. Rogers
  • Dimitar Sasselov
  • Joshua E. Schlieder
  • Damien Ségransan
  • Christopher A. Watson
  • Lauren M. Weiss

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)122
JournalAstronomical Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 31 Aug 2017


HD 3167 is a bright (V = 8.9), nearby K0 star observed by the NASA K2 mission (EPIC 220383386), hosting two small, short-period transiting planets. Here we present the results of a multi-site, multi-instrument radial-velocity campaign to characterize the HD 3167 system. The masses of the transiting planets are 5.02 ± 0.38 {M}\oplus for HD 3167 b, a hot super-Earth with a likely rocky composition ({ρ }b = {5.60}-1.43+2.15 g cm‑3), and {9.80}-1.24+1.30 {M}\oplus for HD 3167 c, a warm sub-Neptune with a likely substantial volatile complement ({ρ }c = {1.97}-0.59+0.94 g cm‑3). We explore the possibility of atmospheric composition analysis and determine that planet c is amenable to transmission spectroscopy measurements, and planet b is a potential thermal emission target. We detect a third, non-transiting planet, HD 3167 d, with a period of 8.509 ± 0.045 d (between planets b and c) and a minimum mass of 6.90 ± 0.71 {M}\oplus . We are able to constrain the mutual inclination of planet d with planets b and c: we rule out mutual inclinations below 1.°3 because we do not observe transits of planet d. From 1.°3 to 40°, there are viewing geometries invoking special nodal configurations, which result in planet d not transiting some fraction of the time. From 40° to 60°, Kozai–Lidov oscillations increase the system’s instability, but it can remain stable for up to 100 Myr. Above 60°, the system is unstable. HD 3167 promises to be a fruitful system for further study and a preview of the many exciting systems expected from the upcoming NASA TESS mission.

    Research areas

  • eclipses, stars: individual: HD 3167, techniques: photometric, techniques: spectroscopic

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