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Validation of the BETA-2 Score: An Improved Tool to Estimate Beta Cell Function After Clinical Islet Transplantation Using a Single Fasting Blood Sample

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  • Shareen Forbes
  • R A Oram
  • A Smith
  • A Lam
  • T Olateju
  • S Imes
  • A J Malcolm
  • A M J Shapiro
  • P A Senior

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    Rights statement: © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Transplantation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

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    Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution Non-Commercial (CC-BY-NC)

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Transplantation
Issue number9
Early online date21 Apr 2016
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2016


The beta score, a composite measure of beta cell function after islet transplantation, has limited sensitivity because of its categorical nature and requires a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT). We developed a novel score based on a single fasting blood sample. The BETA-2 score used stepwise forward linear regression incorporating glucose (in millimoles per liter), C-peptide (in nanomoles per liter), hemoglobin A1c (as a percentage) and insulin dose (U/kg per day) as continuous variables from the original beta score data set (n = 183 MMTTs). Primary and secondary analyses assessed the score's ability to detect glucose intolerance (90-min MMTT glucose ≥8 mmol/L) and insulin independence, respectively. A validation cohort of islet transplant recipients (n = 114 MMTTs) examined 12 mo after transplantation was used to compare the score's ability to detect these outcomes. The BETA-2 score was expressed as follows (range 0–42): display math A score <20 and ≥15 detected glucose intolerance and insulin independence, respectively, with >82% sensitivity and specificity. The BETA-2 score demonstrated greater discrimination than the beta score for these outcomes (p < 0.05). Using a fasting blood sample, the BETA-2 score estimates graft function as a continuous variable and shows greater discrimination of glucose intolerance and insulin independence after transplantation versus the beta score, allowing frequent assessments of graft function. Studies examining its utility to track long-term graft function are required.

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